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 Problems of ecology and ways of their solution
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Конспекты (контрольные вопросы)

 Конспект 1.     Цена 600 руб.    Купить      Хочу дешевле! 

1. Имя существительное (The Noun)
2. Артикль (The article)
3. Местоимение (The Pronoun)
4. Временные группы "Simple"
5. Временные группы "Continuous"
6. Времена группы "Perfect"
7. Времена группы "Perfect Continuous"
8. Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice)
9. Последовательность времён
10. Инфинитив (The Infinitive)
11. Герундий
12. Причастие
13. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
14. Прилагательные и наречия
15. Прямая и косвенная речь
16. Сложное предложение
16а. Сложное предложение
16b. Сложное предложение
17. Наклонение

 Конспект 2.     Цена 600 руб.    Купить      Хочу дешевле! 

1. Имя существительное (The Noun)
2. Артикль (The article)
3. Местоимение (The Pronoun)
4. Временные группы "Simple"
5. Временные группы "Continuous"
6. Времена группы "Perfect"
7. Времена группы "Perfect Continuous"
8. Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice)
9. Последовательность времён
10. Инфинитив (The Infinitive)
11. Герундий (The Gerund)
12. Причастие
13. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты (can, must, have, be, should, may, ought, be able)
14. Прилагательные и наречия
15. Прямая и косвенная речь
16. Сложное предложение
17. Наклонение

Практические задания

 Практическое задание 1.     Цена 1200 руб.    Купить      Хочу дешевле! 

Задание 1
Прочитать и перевести текст на русский язык
The transport system should be environmental friendly
Engineers developing the Japanese transport system must take into consideration not only customer needs but also pay more attention than before to the environment. Nowadays it is impossible to trolling the impact of transport on the environment or on efforts too ease the noise level and other forms of pollution produced by transport. To reduce the detrimental impact on the environment, essentially new designs must be created for all basic means of transport: cars, trains, aircraft and ships.
Another task is to estimate the long-term efficiency of the improvements carried out. Goods, information, people - all move by different means of transport ways. It is natural to suppose that great freedom of movement will yield greater economic profit where quality has been improved. Such factors as topography, the distribution of industrial enterprises and population as well as local political structures may cause an imbalance and negate the advantages of a particular locality, and if a route only produces income from one-way traffic, then it does not pay. Even the latest technology is no more than just another means of reaching journey's end. Therefore, long-term decisions, which strike a balance between social and economic benefits, as promised by the new technologies, should be taken by those using the means of transport, as well by the suppliers and the state.

Задание 2
Прочитать и перевести текст на русский язык
Measure for emergency situations
The major earthquake which destroyed Kobe and its surroundings in January 1995 painfully revealed the vulnerability of Japan's transport infra-structure. The former permissible strength values of physical structures during earthquakes proved unreliable. For six months following the earthquake Japanese railway companies, high-speed motorway agencies and groups responsible for the infrastructure of city transport have been seeking effective measures to be taken in the event of natural disasters. A group of experts from state and industrial companies had to outline ways of creating an infrastructure which would ensure safety infrastructure which would ensure safety in an earthquake-phone country. The group also had to work out an efficient system of measures in the event of natural disasters. In the high-speed trains on the Tokaido line, the seismo-sensitive system will automatically switch on the emergency brakes a second after the shock. However to stop the train completely may need one minute or longer, during which time it may run several kilometers while still subject to danger from damaged track supports. To check the life of physical structures and learn lesson from the Kobe earthquake a whole range of new experiments is needed.

Задание 3
Переведите предложения на русский язык, подчеркнув формы страдательного залога.
1. Festivals of folk songs are attended by a lot of people annually.
2. He was elected the Home Minister last year.
3. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been solved, the article was published.
4. Today plastics are being used for car bodies.
5. It's easy to find your way about in New-York, it is laid out so regularly. The streets are well-planned. The streets running north and south are called "Avenues" and are numbered, for example, 1st Avenue, 2nd Avenue, etc., the streets going east and west are called "Streets" and are also numbered.
1. Thousands of foreign guests are invited every year to attend the Winter Music Festival in Russia.
2. Will the translation be done tomorrow? I hope, it will.
3. When much had been done in the study of ecology by our institute it became an important scientific centre.
4. Today plastics are being widely used instead of metals.
5. Do you know why the White House is white? The story I was told is that in 1812 when England was at war with America, the British captured the City and some of the buildings, including the Capitol and the house of the President, were set on fire. In 1814, in order to hide the marks of the fire, the brown stone walls were painted white - and it has been the "White House" ever since.
1. When was the play staged? - It was staged last year.
2. I'm sure a lot of questions will be discussed at the conference.
3. The automatic equipment is being installed in our shop.
4. The construction of this dam has been completed this month.
5. English nowadays is considered to be the most popular language in the world. It's the official language of the U.K., of the U.S.A. and of Australia and New Zealand. It's used as one of the official languages in Canada, the Union of South Africa , and the Irish Republic. It is spoken as a second language by many people in India, Pakistan, and numerous countries in Africa.

Задание 4
Выберите нужную форму модального глагола: can (could),be able to, have to.
It was late autumn. A hungry fox was walking about the forest looking for something to eat, but he ... find nothing .Then he came up to the lake. "There ... be some fish", he thought. "If I... catch one I shall... to have a good dinner." He saw a few fishes but they were swimming too fast. But the Fox. ... swim. "How ... I catch them?" he thought and said, "Little fishes !"- "We ... not hear you." - " Come nearer, you ... come on land and live in peace as I do. You ... always find something to eat in the forest and you will ... to meet many friends." - " He ... be so stupid if he tells us to come on land," thought the fishes.

Задание 5
Составить резюме с использованием образца.
Address Date
Job objective:
Recent position:
Previous jobs:
Personal Data:
Travel history:
Profound computer skills:

Задание 6
Прочитать и перевести текст на английский язык
Связь с воздушным и морским транспортом: новые маршруты путешествий и перевозок. Воздушные и морские маршруты служат не только для внутренних перевозок, но являются также звеньями международной транспортной сети. Сейчас реализуется ряд проектов по улучшению воздушного сообщения в Японии: строится новый международный аэропорт под Осакой: местные аэропорты обустраивают для выполнения международных рейсов и круглосуточной работы транспортных агентств: на случай аварийных ситуаций или стихийных бедствий создается система связи между четырьмя национальными центрами по управлению авиаперевозками. Авиакомпании снижают цены для частных пассажиров и делают скидки при предварительной покупке билетов. Морские перевозки составляют сегодня 44% от всех грузовых перевозок в стране. Новые электронные сети, такие как SHIPNENS, создаются для обмена информацией между крупнейшими морскими портами. Небольшие японские гавани часто сильно загружены, поэтому для них использование техники играет решающую роль.

 Практическое задание 2.     Цена 1200 руб.    Купить      Хочу дешевле! 

Задание 1
Поставьте слова в правильном порядке, чтобы получилось повествовательное или вопросительное предложение.
Have of I accountant diploma.
I have diploma of accountant
Want you want anything?
1. pleased am you very I to meet
2. do you Mr Smith how
3. to it of interest is especial you.
4. what on your opinion is possibility cooperation
5. would to discuss I like the terms.

Задание 2
В каждой группе слов (или словосочетаний) три объединены общим понятием. Найдите и напишите четвертое слово, не относящееся к ним по смыслу.
1. to be against to arrange to disagree to object
2. Excuse me pardon happy sorry
3. Contract agreement treaty invitation
4. Pleasure question problem matter
5. Price cost money sea

Задание 3
В группе предложений лишь одно верное. Найдите и запишите его.
1. It is great pleasure for me to inform that you can expect payments in three days.
2. It is of great pleasure for me to inform that you can expect payments in three days.
3. It is a great pleasure for me to inform that you can expect payments in three days.
4. It is a great pleasure for me inform that you can expect payments in three days.
5. It is a great pleasure for me to inform that you can expect payments at three days.

Задание 4
Вставьте один из предлогов, если это необходимо
1. It is reply (at, by, to) your fax.
2. Thank you (in, for, with) providing me (for, with, about) the catalogues.
3. I`ve lost your response (on, of, to) my letter (on, of, with) October,1976.
4. I answered (at, by, to) many questions, filled (with, into, in) the forms.
5. Mr White met the representatives of our filled (in, on, for) Sunday.

Задание 5
Подберите синонимы из колонки В к словам из колонки А. Запишите их попарно, дайте перевод. Например: exit-way out - выход.
to participate thankful
grateful chance
possibility discomfort
inconvenience to get
to obtain to take part in

Задание 6
Дайте ответы на вопросы
1. What do you say when you meet your friend?
2. What do you say when you want to introduce yourself?
3. How do you express your hope for a successful cooperation?
4. What do you say when you are busy and can't accept invitation?
5. What do you say when you are late?

Задание 7
В каждом предложении есть одна грамматическая ошибка (времена глагола). Найдите ее и исправьте.
1. He have a diploma of an account.
2. We are not like the terms of the contract.
3. I am at the exhibition yesterday.
4. We did not received your payment yet.
5. How do you send the letter tomorrow?

Задание 8
Вместо пропусков вставьте want, should, have to.
1. You …. pay the bill by all means.
2. What …. you like for breakfast?
3. If you want to buy our goods you …. look through price lists and catalogues.
4. It is too late. I …. To go to bed.

Задание 9
Поставьте пять вопросов к предложению (общий, специальные: к подлежащему, к определению, к обстоятельству места, разделительный вопрос)
Our production is in stable demand in Canada.

 Практическое задание 3.     Цена 1200 руб.    Купить      Хочу дешевле! 

Задание I
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом их них видовременную форму и залог глагола - сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. When all important problems had been discussed the conference adopted a number of resolutions.
2. All the facts for the trial will be collected by the lawyer.
3. This bill is being discussed by the House of Commons.
4. Common law is originated in the customs of the country.

Задание II. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. It is proved that cheating is a crime.
2. One of the most important figures in the British legal system is the solicitor.
3. From the most ancient times we know that people of different trades and professions made a contribution to the progress of universal civilization.

Задание III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. A solicitor does the legal work involved in buying a house, for instance.
2. To qualify as a barrister you had to take the examinations at the Bar counsil.
3. The trial was to be held on Monday.
4. The law has to provide for all kind of possibilities.

Задание IV. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. The district Court she works at is quote near.
2. The man I spoke with is a very experienced judge.

Задание V. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.
1. To distinguish between the political parties is often difficult.
2. The first reading in the House of Lords is to introduce the bill.
3. The last monarch to use the power of vetoing bills was Queen Anna.
4. It is necessary for a law students to know any foreign language.

Задание VI. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-ый абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите с 3-го по 5-ый абзацы.
1. England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers.
2. If a person has a legal problem, he will go and see a solicitor. Almost every town will have at least one. In fact there are at least 50,000 solicitors in Britain, and the number is increasing.
3. Many problems are dealt with exclusively by a solicitor. For instance, the solicitor deals with petty crimes and some matrimonial matters in Magistrates' Courts, the lowest Courts. He prepares the case and the evidence. He actually speaks in Court for you.
4. In a civil action he can speak in a Country Court, when the case is one of divorce or recovering some debts. In the Country Court the solicitor wears a black gown over his ordinary clothes.
5. A solicitor also deals with matters outside Court. He does the legal work involved in buying a house, for instance. He writes legal letters for you and carries on legal arguments outside Court. If you want to make a will the best man to advise you is a solicitor.
6. To qualify as a solicitor, a young man or woman joins a solicitor as a "clerk" and works for him whilst studying part time for the "Law Society" exams. Interestingly enough, it is not necessary for you to go to university. When you have passed all the necessary exams, you can "practice", which means you can start business on your own.

Задание VII. Прочитайте 6-ой абзац текста и письменно ответьте на вопрос к нему.
Is it necessary for a young man or woman to go to university to qualify as a solicitor?

Дополнительное задание
The US Court System
The US court system may be likened to a pyramid. At the apex of the pyramid stands the Supreme Court of the United States, the highest court in the land. It consists of nine justices appointed for life by the President with the advice and consent of the US Senate. One justice is designated the Chief Justice. The court meets on first Monday of October each year. It continues in session usually until June. On the next level stands the US courts of appeal in 11 circuits. Each circuit includes three or more states. Each court consists of between 3 and 15 judges, depending on the amount of work in the circuit. The judge with the largest service is the chief judge. On the lowest level stand the US district courts, 94 in all, where cases are initially tried and decided. Each state has at least one court and from 1 to 27 judges, depending on the volume of cases which must be decided. A person involved in a suit in a US court may thus proceed through three levels of decision. His case will be heard and decided by one of the courts on the lower level. If either is dissatisfied with the decision rendered, the case will be decided by one of the courts of appeal. Then, if one of the parties is still dissatisfied, the case will go to the Supreme Court of the United States.

 Практическое задание 4.     Цена 1200 руб.    Купить      Хочу дешевле! 

1. Сделайте письменный перевод текстов: - The Judicial System of the USA (Jane's letter) - Jane's letter (cont.) - Kidnap!

2. Составьте все виды вопросов к подчеркнутому предложению

3. Составьте схему "Судебная система США"

4. Выполните грамматические задания
The Judicial System of the USA (Jane's letter)

«...You asked me to tell some words about the judicial system of the USA. Though I'm not a specialist in this field I'll try to do my best. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the US and it meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington. It's a beautiful building of white marble. Above the main entrance the words are written «Equal Justice Under Law». The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and eight Associate Justices. They are all appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress or any order issued by the President. This right of veto is widely used to block the passage of any progressive bills. The USA is divided into eleven judicial circuits and each one is served with a Federal Court of Appeals. As a rule the Court of Appeals sits with three judges on the bench. There are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA. Cases tried in the district court may be appealed in one of the eleven Courts of Appeal and in the Supreme Court. The decision of the Supreme Court is final. In the US the judiciary is divided into the federal and state judiciary. Jurisdiction of particular courts or judges is determined by either the national or state constitutions and laws. The state courts are organized in a system that looks like the system of Federal courts with a Supreme Court at the top. In most of the states the lowest courts are the magistrates, or police courts...»

Jane's letter (cont.)
«...One more thing I'm going to tell you concerns the problem which faces our society now. I mean the problem of violence. The latest statistical data says that violent crime is rising constantly in this country. I know about it not only by newspapers reports. I've been robbed twice already and I'm afraid to leave my flat when it becomes dark. But even staying at home isn't a guarantee for safety. My old neighbour had been killed in his own flat and as usual the murderers hadn't been found by the police. Violence has become an accepted way of life in America. There are different explanations for this phenomenon. One of them is the possibility to buy any kind of weapons at gun shops everywhere in the US. The weapon is being bought not only by criminals but by law-abiding citizens too to protect themselves. The growth of using drugs is one more reason. To buy drugs teenagers need money, so they try to get it by robbing, committing burglary or even murdering people. Another reason is the propaganda of violence by mass media and especially television and films. Watching TV you are being fed with all kinds of killings, beatings, gunfights and so on. Even the special programmes for children are full of scenes of violence. And it's not surprising that juvenile crime record is constantly growing. I'm sorry I took so much of your time telling about my city and country, but I hope it was interesting for you. I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. Please, give my best wishes to Pete. Yours sincerely, Jane».

Mr and Mrs Barker were having a quiet day at home. Their 17-year-old daughter was away in Scotland staying with a friend. At 12 noon, Mr and Mrs Barker got a phone call from the friend where their daughter was supposed to be staying, saying that she had disappeared. They were just about to call the police when the phone rang again. A hoarse voice informed Mr Barker that his daughter had been kidnapped and that unless he paid a ransom of $ 1000 he would never see his daughter alive again. When Mr Barker inquired who the caller was, the voice answered that it was someone he knew well. The voice then gave him instructions about where and when to hand over the money. He was warned not to tell the police or to attempt to have the phone call traced. Mr Barker went to the bank and immediately withdrew the money out of his bank account and left on the next train to Brighton. When he arrived, he entered the Grand Hotel at five to six and carefully placed the briefcase beside a sofa as arranged. At six o'clock precisely, a woman in a scarf and raincoat approached, took the briefcase and walked quickly away. At 10 p.m. the same evening, to his great relief, his daughter returned home. She could hardly refrain from laughing. Imagine his surprise when she handed him his briefcase containing the $ 1000. It turned out that she and her friend had decided to play a practical joke. It was she who had put on a hoarse voice to phone her father and it was she who had collected the briefcase in Brighton. The joke had succeeded but, strangely enough, Mr And Mrs Barker did not appreciate it as much as their daughter did.

Вставьте подходящие модальные глаголы (must, may, can, need, to have to, to be able to).
1. You ... not come to help them tomorrow: the work is done. 2. You ... not change the whole text as the beginning is all right. You ... only rewrite the second part of it. 3. ... you help me now? - I am afraid not: I am in a great hurry. I shall be free in the evening. Come to my place at about eight, and I ... help you. 4. John ... not tell us the rules of the game: we know them. 5. ... I return the book to you on Friday? I am afraid I ... not finish it before. - No, that is too late. You ... bring it to me not later than Wednesday. 6. It is already six o'clock. We ... hurry if we don't want to be late. 7. ... you translate this text into English? - I think I ... . 8. They spent all the morning on the river bank. Only Ann ... return home as she ... not stay in the sun for such a long time.

 Практическое задание 5.     Цена 1200 руб.    Купить      Хочу дешевле! 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The drafts in process are aimed at the democratization of the penitentiary system.
2. The legal reform in Russia had been conducted with more success than many other reforms.
3. The concept of anthropological nature of crime have been put forward by Lambroso, Ferry, Garofalo and other bourgeois lawyers.
4. The international conference "Prison Reform in the Former Totalitarian Countries" is much spoken about.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; найдите в них и подчеркните слова it, that, one. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на значения этих слов.
1. One of the most serious problems confronting American society is that of recidivism.
2. It was the Prison Act (1865) that introduced a new approach to imprisonment in England.
3. All bodies of state power in our country are elected ones.
4. It is not easy to investigate a criminal case.
5. One should know that concealment of the criminal and instruments of the crime or objects acquired are punishable by law.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, найдите в них и подчеркните инфинитив. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.
1. To pass a sentence a crime must be investigated and examined by the court in accordance with the criminal procedure established by law.
2. The State of Massachusetts was the first to make legal provision for parole.
3. The UNO proposes a number of measures to be implemented for a radical improvement of relations between states.
4. The methods to detect crimes by means of criminal procedure are the criminalistic aspect of crime detection.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, найдите в них независимый (самостоятельный) причастный оборот и подчеркните его. Переведите предложения, учитывая особенности перевода независимого причастного оборота на русский язык.
1. The investigator being very experienced, the investigation did not last long.
2. In the court trials against juvenile delinquents an advocate and a public prosecutor must take part without fail, the latter's function being to assist the court to pass a just sentence.

V. Перепишите следующие сложные предложения, найдите в них придаточные предложения условия и подчеркните их. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. If a person violates a law, he will be punished.
2. If criminality did nit exist in our times, there would be no need of finding the ways and means for overcoming this phenomenon.
3. If these parents had ensured proper upbringing of their son, he would no have become an offender.

VI. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Найдите и подчеркните в них инфинитивные обороты. Помните, что объектные и субъектные инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.
1. All progressives expect the conference to decide important international questions.
2. The first parole law is known to be enacted in 1973 in Massachusetts.

VII. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1, 2, 3, и 4-ый абзацы текста.
1. To eradicate infringements on the law and order it is necessary to improve crime detection techniques. Criminalistics plays an important role in this field. Methods and means employed by criminalistics are also used in crime prevention.
2. By examining and generalizing the methods of crime detection techniques criminalistics creates better methods of crime control. Criminalistics is characterized by a comprehensive use of scientific and technical achievements, the tactics and methods of crime detection in the interests of justice.
3. The definition of criminalistics as a science of crime detection most fully reflects its basic purpose: to improve crime detection techniques and instruct to uncover crimes.
4. The criminalistics analysis allows to establish most typical situations in committing certain types of crimes.
5. This analysis allows to obtain generalized information of the personality of criminals, particular features in planning crimes, typical conditions, methods, means and instruments of crime.

VIII. Прочитайте 5-ый абзац текста и ответьте на следующий вопрос:
What does the criminalistics analysis allow to obtain?
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